Cordotomy (or chordotomy) is a surgical procedure that disables selected pain-conducting tracts in the spinal cord, in order to achieve loss of pain and temperature perception. This procedure is commonly performed on patients experiencing severe pain due to cancer or other diseases for which there is currently no cure. Anterolateral cordotomy is effective for relieving unilateral, somatic pain while bilateral cordotomies may be required for visceral or bilateral pain.
Cordotomy is usually done percutaneously with fluoroscopic guidance while the patient is under local anesthesia. Open cordotomy, which requires a laminectomy, is often risky for patients with poor medical conditions, but may be required if percutaneous cordotomy is not feasible or an attempt has failed.
Endoscopic Discectomy is a minimally invasive spine surgery technique that utilizes an endoscope to treat herniated, protruded, extruded, or degenerative discs that are a contributing factor to leg and back pain. The endoscope allows the surgeon to use a "keyhole" incision to access the herniated disc. Muscle and tissue are dilated rather than being cut when accessing the disc. This leads to less tissue destruction, less postoperative pain, quicker recovery times, earlier rehabilitation, and avoidance of general anesthesia. The excellent visualization via the endoscope permits the surgeon to selectively remove a portion of the herniated nucleus pulposus that is contributing to the patient's leg and back pain.
Thermal annuloplasty is an adjunctive procedure that uses bipolar electro-thermal energy (radiofrequency and/or laser) to ablate or depopulate the sensitized pain nociceptors in the annulus, ablate any inflammatory/grannualtion tissue that has grown into the annulus, and to shrink and tighten the stretched or torn collagen fibers of the annulus. The annulus is the outer portion of the disc and is composed of many concentric layers that are arranged similarly to the plies of a radial tire. Thus, the weakened annulus or defect left by the disc herniation is contracted and possibly sealed from within the disc.
The most common fractures of the spine occur in the thoracic (midback) and lumbar spine (lower back) or at the connection of the two (thoracolumbar junction). These fractures are typically caused by high-velocity accidents, such as a car crash or fall from height.
Men experience fractures of the thoracic or lumbar spine four times more often than women. Seniors are also at risk for these fractures, due to weakened bone from osteoporosis.
Because of the energy required to cause these spinal fractures, patients often have additional injuries that require treatment. The spinal cord may be injured, depending on the severity of the spinal fracture.
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